Shooting Out-of-Date Film

Shooting and processing out-of-date film engages the core of experimental photography. Part chance, part experience, part research, processing old film engages new approaches to photography through trial and error.

Tree Trunks, Lilly Pond, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, Dale Laboratories “9100” film (circa 1998). 


After the adoption of the 35mm film width in 1909 as the international standard gauge for movie picture systems, 35mm still cameras were introduced to exploited the availability and advantages of 35mm cine film stock.  With new 35mm cameras, photographers could take a large number of photographs without the inconveniences of reloading new film. Small, fast, and highly portable, these new camera systems which were marketed to the burgeoning amateur market. Several new designs accommodated up to 50 feet of Kodak cine film, enough film for 400 exposures. [2] After World War I, 35mm film became the most popular film format for still cameras, and spawning hundreds of film types and film brands.

In the era when feature films were created exclusively with film, [1] movie studios purchased large supplies of color cine film to lessen graphic continuity issues resulting from mixing different film emulsions. In the 1970’s, numerous independent film labs and film suppliers marketed repackaged cine film under individual labels, typically remarking Kodak’s most popular cine film, Kodak 5248 [3]. As a promotion two of the most successful companies, Dale Laboratories and Seattle FilmWorks, sent film free to photographer across the country to encourage photographers to use their company’s processing services and offered film free with processing orders. Initially, much of this film was rebranded Kodak 5248 cine film, however traditional color negative film was also shipped to photographers.

Dale Laboratories “9100” color negative film (circa, 1998). DX Number 010624.

I recently discovered several rolls of long out-of-date Dale Laboratories “9100” 35mm color film at the bottom my film storage box. Given the indeterminate age of the “9100” film, I felt these rolls offered an excellent opportunity for experimentation. The recommended processing for Dale Laboratories “9100” 35mm color film is “Process CNK-4 / ECP-2”. [4] Given processing recommendation, I first believed the “9100” film was repackaged Kodak Vision (2383) Color Print movie film, an Estar base cine film stock, which was also sent free to photographers as a promotion. [5] [6] The recommended processing for Kodak Vision 2383 Color Print Film is process ECP-2. [7] However, after deeper research tracking the DX number on the film canister, I discovered my roll of “9100” film is rebranded Ferrania Imaging Color FG100 color negative film with an approximate manufacturing date of 1998. [8] [9] [10]

  • Walkway, Ginkgo Biloba Tree, Barbro Osher Sculpture Garden, De Young Museum, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco (1)

In the set of images attached to this post, I photographed in San Francisco’s Golden Gate Park in shady conditions and in the Barbro Osher Sculpture Garden at the De Young Museum in partial sun. I was especially taken with the unusual mixing of yellows and magentas, a result of color shifts from the outdated film emulsion. Exposed at ISO 100 using the built in light meter on an Olympus OM-2 equipped with a Tamron 28-200 zoom lens, the film maintained good detail and exhibited a pleasant film grain.  The film was hand processed in standard C-41 color chemicals, using a freshly mixed Unicolor C-41 chemistry to “cross process” the film and scanned on a Nikon CoolScan 9000 film scanner.

I do plan to continue experiments with the remaining stocks of “9100” film. I have approximately 8 rolls left of this particular film stock. Checking Ebay, as well, there appears to be plentiful stocks of 9100 film still available. Outdated supplies of Seattle FilmWords film is also remains available. [11][12]


David Arnold


[1] See Stephen Follows, Film Vs Digital—What is Hollywood Shooting On?, 1.11.2016.
[2] Todd Gustavson, Camera, P. 210.
[3] Kodak, Chronology of Motion Picture Films
[4] CNK-4 is Konica’s C-41 process; and ECP-2 is Kodak’s cine film development process.
[5] Kodak Motion Picture Film.
[6] Kodak Technical Data, Kodak Vision Color Print 2383.
[7] Kodak Process ECP-2D.
[8] International Imaging Industry Association, Inc., DX Codes for 135-Size Film, P. 21; 
[9]DX barcode numbers on 135 film, I Shoot Film Flickr Group.
[10] Ferrania Imaging Technologies, Film Photography.
[11] Seattle FilmWorks was renamed PhotoWorks in 1999, and discontinued all film processing in 2010. 
[12]Dale Laboratories remains a highly regarded film processing lab located in Hollywood, Florida.

Cross Processing and the Lomo LC-A


lomo-up-closeThe Lomo LC-A showing the viewfinder, Minitar 1 lens, zone focus and exposure controls.

The Lomo LC-A is a wonderful little camera. With a sleek black design, an ease of use and the unique Minitar 1 wide-angle 32mm f/2.8 lens, the Lomo LC-A inspires play and experimentation. First introduced into mass production in 1984 during the last decade of the Soviet Union, the Lomo LC-A was designed as a copy of the Japanese compact Cosina CX-1, and was intended to be a people’s snapshot camera. The camera was exported to Eastern Europe and discovered in Prague in 1991, after the fall of the Soviet Empire by a group of Austrian students and photographers. In 1992, the Lomo LC-A birthed  the Lomographic Society International, a conceptual, experimental, entrepreneurial, and an early Internet association of photographers. The Lomo LC-A became the Lomographic Society’s flagship product. In 1997, the Lomographic Society convinced the post-Soviet regime to begin production of the Lomo LC-A, a version of the camera, which has remained in production until 2005. A replacement Chinese production LC-A+ with a Russian lens was introduced in 2006 and after 2007 the Lomo LC-A+ has been manufactured in China with a Chinese manufactured Minitar 1 wide-angle 32mm f/2.8 lens.[1] The Lomo LC-A+ cameras is a now available with Russian made lens or with the Chinese manufactured version, and features expanded features such as a multiple exposure option and expanded ISO settings up to 1600. [2]

Key Lomo LC-A technical features.

•35mm film format. •fixed, Minitar 1 wide-angle 32mm f/2.8 lens. •auto exposure systen reliable even at night. •electronic controlled shutter speed (2m—1/500 of a second). •manual zone focus lens—a little lever adjusts the focus distance from 0.8m to infinity •the camera is one of the smallest 35mm cameras you’ll find—easy to place in a camera bag or pocket and take it everywhere. •manual film advance and rewind. •hot shoe attachement •ISO setting from 25-400. •inexpensive—$150 (average cost for good condition Russian made Lomo LC-A on Ebay).

Loading Film into the Lomo LC-A. 

For several years, I have been using the Lomo LC-A for the distinctive edge vignetting produced by the Minitar 1 wide-angle 32mm f/2.8 lens, and for the Loma LC-A’s ease of use and lightweight design—the small palm sized camera is easily carried in a pocket or added to a camera bag.  I’ve found that the Lomo LC-A coupled with cross processed transparency film produces a wholly unique color scheme. Cross processing involves intentionally developing film in chemistry not recommended by the film manufacturer.  The results can be spectacular. With cross processing contrast, color saturation and grain are  increased.  In general, cross processing enhances the abstraction of forms and shifts to brilliant green and blues are most common.

Mysterious Color Shifts With Cross Processing.

Color film contains blue, red and green dye layers plus silver-halide crystal layers. Color results vary according the silver halide grains that correspond to the amount of light recorded on each layer. Color film processing employs specially engineered chemicals which react to produce color couplers on the image forming layers.  The silver halide crystals are removed in the development and bleach steps. The  final color image contains only dyes: the blue sensitive layer forming yellow-colored dye, the red sensitive layer forming cyan-colored dyes and green sensitive layers forming magenta-colored dye. In conventional color processing, the color image  is closely representative of the scene in front of the camera lens. Cross processing uses the complexities of color film image formation to produce unexpected and unique results which varies according to the dye composition of each film stock. [3]

The four examples above illustrate the unpredictable nature of color cross processing. With Big Dead Oak and Pismo Beach Rock images, I selected Kodak Elite Chrome 100 EB2 film, a warm toned color transparency film. Note the radical color shifts in the two sets, exposed on adjoining frames, taken moments apart, and processed at the same time in the same batch of C-41 color processing. (Click to enlarge).

Color transparency or slide film is normally processed in E-6 chemistry. Rather than processing the film in the manufacturer’s recommended E-6 process, I intentionally developed my Lomo LC-A  film in C-41 chemistry, a process used by one hour photo labs which is intended for processing color negative films.   Cross processing unlocks unexpected and dramatic results by substituting different chemicals from those recommended by the film manufacturer, producing a color schemes not achieved by any other means, including digital post processing. To accentuate cross processing effects, my Lomo LC-A film is scanned to CD’s immediately after processing, producing an impressionistic noise structure. Cross processing, and especially when coupled with the Lomo LC-A, produces intense, electric, vibrant colors, converting an ordinary scene into an expressive event.

Lomo LC-A and Cross Processing Gallery

©David Arnold, 2013


[1] Lomo LC-A History. Lomographic Society.

[2] Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Lomography and the Lomo LC-A, p. 354-5.

[3] Robert Hirsch, Exploring Color Photography, p. 17.